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Robbin, Thomas (1998). "Charisma". In Swatos, William H. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7619-8956-0. Morse, William; Morse, Mary (1985). Harper's Dictionary of Contemporary Usage. Harper and Row. p.110. Troeltsch, Ernst (1931) [1911]. The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches. Vol.1. Translated by Wyon, Olive. Allen and Unwin. pp.99, 109.

The English term charisma is from the Greek χάρισμα ( chárisma), which means "favor freely given" or "gift of grace". [2] The term and its plural χαρίσματα ( charismata) derive from χάρις ( charis), which means "grace" or indeed "charm" with which it shares the root. Some derivatives from that root (including "grace") have similar meanings to the modern sense of personality charisma, such as "filled with attractiveness or charm", "kindness", "to bestow a favor or service", or "to be favored or blessed". [6] [7] Moreover, the ancient Greek dialect widely used in Roman times employed these terms without the connotations found in modern religious usage. [8] Ancient Greeks applied personality charisma to their gods; for example, attributing charm, beauty, nature, human creativity or fertility to goddesses they called Charites ( Χάριτες). TIME-RELEASE DELIVERY SYSTEM – stimulates blood circulation on scalp for eight hours or more nourishing and stimulating hair follicles for regrowth/growth Turner, Stephen (2003). "Charisma Reconsidered". Journal of Classical Sociology. 3 (5): 5–26. doi: 10.1177/1468795X03003001692. S2CID 220121939. Thus, Eastern Mediterranean Jews in the 1st century CE had notions of charis and charisma that embraced the range of meanings found in Greek culture and the spiritual meanings from the Hebrew Bible. [9] :15 From this linguistic legacy of fused cultures, in 1 Corinthians, Paul the Apostle introduced the meaning that the Holy Spirit bestowed charism and charismata, "the gift of God's grace," upon individuals or groups. For Paul, "[t]here is a clear distinction between charisma and charis; charisma is the direct result of divine charis or grace." [9] :36–37 [10] : 1549 Founded in Europe, Charismo founders were motivated by the limited options available for clinically-proven, highly effective, natural hair growth products. A strategic collaborative with leading experts in the field resulted in the world’s best holistic hair growth formulas!a b c d Scheper, George L. (2005). "Charisma". In Jones, Lindsay (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.3 (Seconded.). Macmillan Reference.

Antonakis, John (2015-02-09). "Let's face it: Charisma matters". TEDx Lausanne. Archived from the original on 2015-04-18. Antonakis, John; Fenley, Marika; Liechti, Sue (2011). "Can Charisma be Taught? Tests of Two Interventions" (PDF). Academy of Management Learning & Education. 10 (3): 374–396. doi: 10.5465/amle.2010.0012. Theologians and social scientists have expanded and modified the original Greek meaning into two distinct senses: personality charisma and divinely conferred charisma. Stevenson, Angus; Lindberg, Christine A., eds. (2010). "charisma". New Oxford American Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 292.Here Weber extends the concept of charisma beyond supernatural to superhuman and even to exceptional powers and qualities. Sociologist Paul Joosse examined Weber's famous definition, and found that: Grabo, Allen; Spisak, Brian R.; Van Vugt, Mark (2017). "Charisma as signal: An evolutionary perspective on charismatic leadership". The Leadership Quarterly. 28 (4): 473–485. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.05.001. These dialectic meanings influenced changes in Pentecostalism in the late 19th century, and charismatic movements in some mainline churches in the mid-20th century. The discussion in the 21st Century Religion section explores what charisma means in these and other religious groups. a b c Ebertz, Michael N. (2007). "Charisma". In Betz, Hans Dieter; Browning, Don S.; Janowski, Bernd; Jüngel, Eberhard (eds.). Religion Past & Present. Vol.II. Brill. pp. 493–496. Calhoun, Craig, ed. (2002). "Weber, Max". Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 510–512.

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Rapoport, David C. (June 1979). "Moses, Charisma, and Covenant". Western Political Quarterly. 32 (2): 123–143. doi: 10.2307/448172. JSTOR 448172. The gospels, written in the late first century, apply divinely conferred charisma to revered figures. Examples are accounts of Jesus' baptism and of his transfiguration, in which disciples see him as radiant with light, appearing together with Moses and Elijah. Another example is Gabriel's greeting to Mary as "full of grace". [10] In these and other instances early Christians designated certain individuals as possessing "spiritual gifts", and these gifts included "the ability to penetrate the neighbour to the bottom of his heart and spirit and to recognize whether he is dominated by a good or by an evil spirit and the gift to help him to freedom from his demon". [13] The Hebrew Bible and the Christian Bible record the development of divinely conferred charisma. In the Hebrew text the idea of charismatic leadership is generally signaled by the use of the noun hen (favor) or the verb hanan (to show favor). The Greek term for charisma (grace or favor), and its root charis (grace) replaced the Hebrew terms in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (the 3rd century BCE Septuagint). Throughout, "the paradigmatic image of the charismatic hero is the figure who has received God's favor". [10] : 1545 In other words, divinely conferred charisma [11] applied to highly revered figures.

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